OLD TESTAMENT STUDIES

THE LAW BOOKS


Compilation by R. Grigg, 2018

Kingdom Ministries UK (c)



Introduction to the Old Testament, Law Books,

Covenants and Cannons 14

Genesis 19

Exodus 25

Overview of Exodus (3 journeys, 3 encampments) 34

Leviticus 37

Numbers 45

Deuteronomy 51

References & Bibliography 56



Introduction to the Old Testament, Law Books, Covenants & Cannons


Why is the Old Testament important? The Old Testament in its five-fold division lays the foundation for the coming of the Messiah Saviour anticipating Him as Prophet, Priest, and King and as the suffering Saviour who must die for man’s sin before He reigns.


The Old Testament also:


  1. Provides a record of God's preparation via the Patriarchs and Israel for the coming of the Saviour, Jesus.
  2. Aids understanding of the New Testament.
  3. Answers some of the big questions in life, e.g. the origins of the universe, earth and man, the origins of sin and death, the origins of the nations (Gen 11), the character of God and who is the Messiah?
  4. Serves as an evangelistic tool for the Jews: see John 5:39-40, 46-47, 2 Tim 3:15 and Isaiah 53.
  5. Contributes to Christian maturity in conduct, character and ministry. In 2 Tim 16-17 it says that the purpose of all scripture is to bring us to maturity and make us righteousness in Christ. The Word of God (including the O.T.), equips us for ministry, see: Heb 12:1-2, Rom 15:4, 1 Cor. 10:6, 11.
  6. Assists us in defence of the truth (apologetics). Jesus defended and combatted disbelieving teachers of the law with verses from the O.T. See Mark 12:24-27. Peter used the book of Joel, chapter 2, to explain the events the coming of the Holy Spirit at Pentecost; Paul also used O.T. scriptures to defend the faith; see 2 Tim 3:12-14. It is also useful to combat false teachings from cults: see Ps. 89:27 ff and Colossians chapter.



The Law: The First Five Books & The Five Covenants


The first five books of the Bible are called the Pentateuch which means “five books.” They are also known as the books of the Law because they contain the laws and instruction given by God, through Moses to the people of Israel. These five books were written by Moses, except for the last part of Deuteronomy which tells about the death of Moses. These five books lay the foundation for the coming of Christ, showing how God choose and brought into being the nation of Israel. As God’s chosen people, Israel became the guardians of the Old Testament, the recipients of the covenants of promise, and the root from which the Messiah came

(Rom. 3:2; 9:1-5).


Understanding the Covenants and Cannons


In the whole of the Bible there are 5 major covenants and around them, sits 5 cannons. A Cannon is the recorded history based around the Covenants. The Cannon tells us the story of what happened before the Covenant was made, the Covenant itself, and what happened after the Covenant was made: it is the story and history of the wars and battles, genealogies and Psalms of the Israelites, and it is a record of how the relationship between God and Israel had progressed and worked itself out.


a. Throughout the Old Testament we also have 3 different types of Covenant:


1.  A Grant Covenant – this kind of Covenant was entered into when a greater king wanted to bless a lesser king or people. The Covenant and blessings are given with 'no strings attached', e.g. no rules and stipulations and not dependent on what people did or did not do. We see this kind of Covenant between God and Noah, Abraham, David, and Jesus.


2.  A Kinship Covenant – this Covenant was based on their being two equal parties who come together in agreement with a small list of rules and stipulations. We see this kind of Covenant in the marriage ceremony – both promise to love and honour and stay faithful to each other; if one partner breaks the Covenant agreements however, the relationship is broken and may be ended (or healed).


3.  A Vassal Covenant – this kind of Covenant is made between a king or ruler in a greater position of power and authority and his subjects. The subjects may have been 'won' and left-over through war, e.g. the women, children, elderly, disabled etc, and have been allowed to 'live' but under tight control, rules and restrictions e.g. they would need to serve their new ruler and often had to pay heavy taxes. Many became slaves. If the rules were violated, the people or person could be punished and some would be executed; however the king or ruler would protect from the King's enemies.


In the case of God and his people, God became the one who was in the greater position of authority and power and he required that his people, the Israelites obey his commands and laws and worship Him only; he would be their Father, protector and provider: He would fight for them and with them against their enemies. If however, they did not obey and worship him, they would be punished for breaking the Covenant. In Deuteronomy chapter 31-32, God forewarns Israel that because of their continued sin (breaking the laws and Covenant, their life-style, worshipping other gods etc), they would be encounter disaster. God however, longs for relationship with his people: He loves them and restores them.


b. The five major Covenants made between God and Israel were:


The Covenant between God and Noah (found in Genesis 9): This was a Covenant that God made with Noah to never flood the world again. It is was Grant Covenant (unconditional). The Cannon (the whole story, before and after the Covenant) of Noah begins in Genesis 1 up to Genesis finishes at Genesis chapter 10.


The Covenant between God and Abraham (found in Genesis 17): This was a Covenant where God promised that Abraham would become the father of many nations. This was also a Grant Covenant. The Cannon of Abraham begins in Genesis 11 and ends at Genesis chapter 50.


The Covenant between God and Moses / Israel (found in Exodus 20): God offered a Grant Covenant – he wanted the whole of Israel to enter into a relationship with him, for them to all be Priest and he would be their God (Ex. 20:5-6), but the people of Israel rejected this and made a counter-offer. They didn't want a face to face, personal relationship with God because they were fearful of God - fearful that they would die if God spoke to them directly (see Genesis 20:18-21).


Kinship Covenant:  The people of Israel nominated Moses to be in-between person, or the Priest – so the people were distanced from God, of their own choosing. But because God loved Israel and wanted a relationship with them, he accepted their counter-offer and they entered into a Kinship Covenant, which was meant to be an equal partnership with some agreed conditions on both sides; therefore the 10 commandments and laws were given for the people of Israel to follow - and God would be their Father, their protector and provider; He would back them up and punish any of their enemies who warred against them. This Covenant is referred to as the Old Covenant throughout the Old Testament and New Testament (although God's Covenant with Noah's was the oldest!)


However, under the new leadership of Joshua after Moses passed away, the Covenant changed (see Joshua 24). The Covenant between God and Israel was renewed (because God loved Israel), but the terms were changed because the people of Israel broke the previous Kinship Covenant (under Moses) continually: they did not follow and obey God and the 10 commandments given but worshipped idols and went their own way. 


Vassal Covenant:  The relationship and between God and Israel was painful and difficult, therefore the Covenant changed to a Vassal Covenant. Under Joshua, new decrees and laws were established and recorded in the Book of the Law of God (Joshua 24:25-27). We find the Book of Deuteronomy introduces many more rules and laws for the Israelites to follow, in order to serve God. (Deuteronomy and Joshua were written in approximately the same time/era with some overlap: Joshua was written approximately 1400-1370 and Deuteronomy approximately 1406/7).


The Cannon of the story of Moses and Joshua begins in Exodus 1 and ends at the end of the book of Joshua, but the Old Covenant remained in place with Israel throughout their history, (throughout the Old Testament), and up until the time that Jesus made the New Covenant with his blood at the Cross, found in the New Testament.



Between Covenant between God and David (found in 2 Samuel 7). This Covenant overlaps and co-exists with Moses Covenant. David had built a palace for himself, but he wanted to build a house/Temple for the Lord (this was passed onto his son Solomon because of the bloodshed in David's life), however, God was blessed by David's heart and his desire to build Him a house, so God made a Grant Covenant with David: God would build a house for David instead – a house that would last for eternity; the seed of David on the throne for in an everlasting Kingdom (foreshadowing the Messiah coming and ruling through David's genealogy). The covenant was unconditional and was fulfilled in Christ and is to be completely fulfilled in the end time.


Between God and Jesus (found in the New Testament, The Gospels): this was the New Covenant that was made on the cross, via Jesus blood. The new covenant made the Old Covenant obsolete. It opened up the way, through Jesus' death and fulfilment of God's justice for mankind's sin; the veil was torn, opening up the way for all (including Gentiles) to come into relationship with God. The Old Covenant was replaced with the New Covenant, bought by Jesus' blood.




GENESIS


Date: 1450-1410 B.C.


Author: Moses


Purpose: To give an historical record of events of 'beginnings' and to record God's creation of the world and his desire to have a relationship with mankind.


Setting: The region presently known as the Middle East


Audience: The people of Israel


Main Characters: Adam, Eve, Noah, Abraham, Sarah, Isaac, Rebekah, Esau, Jacob, Rachel, Joseph. (1)


Key events & passages: Origins - Creation, The fall of mankind, The flood.


Themes: Beginnings/creation, disobedience & sin, God's promises, blessings and curses, covenants, judgement and grace, the origins of Israel and other nations.


Places of interests:


  • Mountains of Ararat: where Adam & Eve dwelled and where the Ark rested.
  • Babel: the city that sinned by building a tower to reach God: people where scattered and were given different languages.
  • Ur of the Chaldeans: Abraham's birthplace
  • Hebron: Abraham moved to Hebron where he put down his deepest roots. Abraham, Isaac and Jacob all lived and where buried there.
  • Beersheba: where a well was dug as a sign of an other between Abraham and the army of King Abimelech. God also appeared to Isaac here and passed on to him the covenant he made with his father, Abraham.
  • Bethel: Jacob fled to Haran after he deceived his brother Easu. He met and married Leah and Rachel and worked for their father, Laban. After a meeting with his brother Esau, he returned to Bethel.
  • Egypt: Jacob had 12 sons, including Joseph. Joseph was betrayed by his brothers who sold him to slavery. Joseph lived in Egypt and rose as the Pharaoh's second-in-command. He saved Egypt from famine and his family, by bringing them to live in Egypt and settle there.


Major Events in Genesis:

Creation of the world and of mankind. The story of Adam and Eve and the fall of mankind in the garden. Noah -the flooding of the whole earth, and the first Covenant between God and man. The story of Abraham and 2nd Covenant made between God and man. The events and stories of Isaac, Jacob and Joseph.


'Typology' of Christ in Genesis:

  • Adam was a Type of Christ, as Head – Gen 3, Rom 5:14, 1 Cor 15.
  • Abel’s offering of a blood sacrifice points to Christ who would die for us. Abel’s murder by Cain may also illustrate Christ’s death (1)
  • Melchizedek was a type of Christ as a Priest – Heb. 6:19-7:19
  • Joseph was a Type of Christ, as a Deliverer of the Jews during a severe famine.


Messianic Verses (pointing to Christ):

  • the promise of salvation is given in the seed of the woman (Gen 3:15). Bruising of the heel and head. (1)
  • All nations will be blessed: Gen 12:3, 26:4, 28:14
  • The Sceptre belongs to the Lion of Judah, see Gen 49:8-10: Rev. 5:5, Heb 7:14.



OUTLINE of the book of Genesis: 

  1. The story of creation – Gen 1:1-12
  2. The story of Adam & the fall – Gen. 2:4 – 5.32
  3. The Fallen Angels, the Nephilim & Noah and the Flood – Gen. 6:1-11.32
  4. The story of Abraham (Isaac and Rebekah) & God's promise to the nation – Gen. 12:1-25.18
  5. The story of Isaac – Gen. 25:19-28.9
  6. The story of Jacob – Gen. 25.19-36:43
  7. The story of Joseph – Gen 37:1-50:26



Questions for Small Group studies (Genesis):

(Note to teacher/class: Divide up the questions between the groups, allow time to for these activities and then get feedback from each group).


1.  What did Jesus say is the purpose of the Old Testament? See Mt. 5:17, Luke 24:44-47, Jn 5: 30-40, Rev. 19:10. Is the book of Genesis relevant today? If so, which parts and how?

2.  Read key events & passages from Genesis and discuss their meaning and application to us today, e.g. read about creation and the fall of mankind, Noah and the flood, and other major events and discuss them. How do these past events affect us today? (also see Nos. 1 & 2 Homework – you may want to include these issues in your discussions).

3.  Look again at Adam and Eve and their marriage relationship and discuss:


(a) Why did God instigate marriage? What does marriage represent? Is marriage relevant today? What about sex before marriage and living together before marriage?


(b) What about homosexuality or bisexual relationships? What does God say and feel about this? How should we handle a situation like this? (remember grace and we are living under a New Covenant).


(c) Why is faithfulness and commitment important to God and in our marriages? Use scriptures, Old and New Testament, Remember to have grace!


(d) What role did Adam and Eve have in their marriage relationship? Discuss what makes marriages work? Include practical, spiritual and physical relationships. See Song of Solomon & Ephesians 5:22-23 and other scriptures. How can these be applied to our marriages today?


(e) Discuss and compare the marriage relationship to Christ and the Church. See Ephesians 5:23, 32, Revelation 21 and other scriptures. How can the church prepare herself for His coming and for the wedding feast of the Lamb? See Matthew 22 & 25.



4.  What and where do we find the origin of sin and sickness? How did this affect people in the time of Genesis and how does this affect us today? Where do we find links or quotes in the N.T. regarding the origin of sin and it's effect on mankind? (discuss)



5.  How does Satan disguise himself in the Garden of Eden and how does he disguise himself today? (in what forms/ways)? How, or in what ways does he tempt us? Compare to Jesus' temptations and compare to your own real-life temptations. How can you learn to resist temptation?

7.  Discuss judgement in the O.T. and in the N.T. e.g. being banned from the garden; the Flood that wiped out all life except those on the Ark and judgement found in Revelation: WHY Would a loving God judge people in a harsh manner? (discuss)

8.  Look closely at Genesis chapter 6 verses 1 – 4. This states that the sons of God (fallen angels) had sexual relationships with the women of the earth and produced the Nephilim (before the flood). The Nephilim were a product of angels and women's offspring – they became giants in the land; they defiled and devoured the land and people. When these giant Nephilim died, the book of Enoch* tells us that they because they were part man and part eternal spirits, they became evil spirits/demons that wandered the earth. The Nephilim reappeared after the flood and we still have evil spirits that wander our land and seek to destroy human lives.

9.  Question: How should we view this and handle evil spirits that we come across today? How should be handle and treat people who are afflicted in this way? How would you proceed with this?


(Please refer to Spiritual Warfare notes: never use abusive tactics with people! You can use authority over the demons AND treat the person involved with respect and dignity.)


The book of Enoch was referred to by Peter, Jude and Jesus, even though the Council of Nicea did not include this book as part of scripture. It could be viewed as an extra Biblical source or as scripture that was rejected by the Council.


10.  Are there any other controversial issues in Genesis that still affects our society today e.g. marriage verse other sexual relationships? How should we approach such issues? (Discuss) What other controversial issues are there in Genesis that affects our society today? (discuss).


11.  Look at the 2 Covenants God made with man in Genesis. The first one is found in Genesis 9, between God and Noah, and the 2nd one is found in Genesis 17, between God and Abraham. Discuss the significance of these two Covenants. What significant Covenant has God made with us today? ***



Further study points in Genesis/Homework (optional):

Choose one or more below:


1.  Research views on creation: look into “Creationism,” (and the subject of evolution and adaption) “Intellectual Design,” “Darwinism,” other religions and current scientific views on creation and compare them. Which view is the strongest? Which view(s) do you believe and why?

2.  Research the existence of dinosaurs and the Ice Age. Where and how does this fit it with Biblical thinking and theology?

3.  Study the Nephilim and how this has affected mankind through all the generations: how will this affect the us “in the last days” and what will be their demise?  Research your answers and record them in your Journal.





EXODUS


Date: 1450-1410 B.C. Exodus was written in the desert during Israel's wanderings, somewhere near the Sinai peninsula.


Author: Moses


Setting: From Egypt (through the desert) to the Promised Land.


Audience: The people of Israel


Purpose: To record the events of Israel's deliverance from Egypt and their development as a nation.


Main Characters: Moses, Miriam, Pharaoh, Pharaoh's daughter, Jethro, Aaron, Joshua, Bezalel.


Key events & passages: Moses' rescue as a baby, Moses and the Burning Bush, Moses challenging Pharaoh to release the Jewish slaves, the plagues, the Passover, the release of the Jews, the crossing over of the red sea, the wanderings in the dessert, Moses receiving the 10 Commandments, worship and the Tabernacle, Priests, laws and sacrifices.


Themes: Deliverance from slavery, rescue/redemption, guidance, the Ten Commandments, The nation of Israel.


Key Places: Egypt, Goshen, Nile River, Midian, Red Sea, Sinai Peninsula, Mount Sinai.


KEY PLACES IN EXODUS – Map 2.



Diagram 1/Picture above: A model of the Tabernacle of Moses (outside view)


Typology of Christ in Exodus:


(1) Moses is a type of Christ. Deuteronomy 18:15 shows that Moses, as a prophet, anticipates Christ. Both are kinsman-redeemers who were endangered in infancy, renounced their power to serve others, and functioned as mediators, lawgivers, and deliverers.


(2) The Passover is a very specific type of Christ as the sinless Lamb of God whose blood was shed to atone for our sins (John 1:29, 36; 1 Cor. 5:7).


(3) The Seven Feasts, each of which portray some aspect of the Saviour.


  • The Exodus is a type of shadow of deliverance from sin and slavery to Satan. Paul in the N.T. connects Exodus with baptism, pictures our identification with Christ in His death, burial, and resurrection (1 Cor. 10:1-2; Rom. 6:2-3).
  • The Manna and Water are both portrayed as pictures of Christ (John 6:31-35, 48-63; 1 Cor. 10:3-4). Jesus said he is the Bread of Life and is Life giving water.
  • The Tabernacle portrays the Saviour in its material, colours, furniture, arrangement, and the offerings sacrificed there (Heb. 9:1-10:18). The Tabernacle is also a foreshadow of the Temple in Jerusalem, our bodies as the a Temple of Holy Spirit under the New Covenant, the New Jerusalem and the 'final Temple' we see in Revelation 21.
  • The High Priest quite clearly foreshadows the person and ministry of Christ (Heb. 4:14-16; 9:11-12, 24-28) and the Articles used in the Tabernacle foreshadow Christ.


Diagram 2 below: The inside of the Tabernacle


(Diagram 2a below. Inside view of the Tabernacle of Moses, (The Tabernacle of Moses.org, 2013)

The diagram below shows the layout of the inside of the Tabernacle of Moses.


There are 3 areas of the tabernacle, the Outer Court Area, the Holy Place and the Holy of Holies. The Israelites entered into the tabernacle from the east. God gave them a system to enter into the Holy of Holies (where only the high priest could go.)



OUTLINE of the Book of Exodus:


  1. Israel in Egypt: Exd 1:1 – 12:30
  • Slavery in Egypt
  • God calls Moses
  • God sends Moses to Pharaoh but Pharaoh hardens his heart.
  • Plagues in Egypt
  • The Passover

  • 2.   Israel in the desert: Exd. 12:31 – 18:27
  • The Exodus
  • Crossing the red sea
  • Complaining in the desert

  • 3.  Israel at Sinai: Exd. 19:1 – 40: 38
  • The 10 Commandments & the Laws
  • Tabernacle instructions
  • Breaking the law
  • Tabernacle construction



Questions for Small Group Studies (Exodus):


(Note to teacher/class: Divide up the questions between the groups, allow time to for these activities and then get feedback from each group).


1.  Read key passages from Exodus and discuss their meaning and application for us today?


2.  Discuss the character, background and calling of Moses. Why did God call and choose Moses for the task of releasing his people?


3.  When God answered Moses, he referred to himself as “I AM.” (Ex 3:13-14)

What did he mean? Compare this to Jn 8:24, 28 & 58* and Rev. 1:8.


4.  Look at the Plagues that came upon Egypt –

    Why did God send the plagues on Pharaoh and the Egyptians? 

    Do the plagues have any significance? (discuss)


5.  Discuss the significance of the Ark of the Covenant and the Passover and it's typology regarding Christ. Find scriptures in the N.T. that link the Passover to Jesus' death and discuss the what this means.


6.  Discuss the miracles that took place in the book of Exodus (there are more miracles recorded in Exodus than any other O.T. book). Note and compare to the other miracles that took place in the N.T. scripture.


7.  Discuss what happened to the people of Israel in the desert: why did they become so discontent? What was the result?


8.  Read and discuss the 10 Commandments (Exodus 20). Why where they given? How significant are the Ten Commandments and should we keep the 10 Commandments today? (see Mt 5:17 & Mt 22:37-40) 

Should we also keep all the laws of the O.T? (the two are separate - see Gal. 3 & 5 & Heb. 10:1-22).


9.  What new commandments were given in the N.T? (See Mt. 22:37-40, John 15:9-12, 1 Jn 2:3-11, 1 Jn:21-24).


10.  Discuss why the precise construction of the Tabernacle so significant to the Israelites? (Chapters 25 - 30) Explain the role of the Priest and compare this to Christ as our High Priest (see Hebrews 7 & 8). Discuss worship in our earthly tabernacles today (Hebrews 9).



  1. Further study points in Exodus/Homework (optional):

Choose one or more below:


1. Research the plagues in Exodus and compare to events and plagues we see in Revelation chapters 6, 8, 9, 15 & 16 ? (research and Compare them).


What is the purpose of the plagues in Revelation? Discuss the connection between the deliverance of the Israelites from Egypt and the final deliverance for believers and mankind that we see in Revelation. (Journal your findings).


2. Look into the significance and meaning of the Tabernacle articles used in the Tabernacle for worship and look at how they foreshadowed Christ; compare to the New Testament.


The Ark of the Covenant, The Atonement Cover, The Curtain

The Table, The Bread of Presence, The Lamp-stands and Lamps

The Alter of Incense, The anointing oil, The Alter of Burnt offering

and The Basin.




GEOGRAPHIC & HISTORICAL OVERVIEW of EXODUS 16 to DEUT. 34



(3 Journeys – 3 Encampments)


1. Ex. 16-18: Journey One - from Red Sea to Mt. Sinai

  • complaint about food
  • complaint about water
  • defeat of Amalekites
  • selection of Judges


  1. Ex. 19 – Lev – Numb. 10.10: One Year Encampment at Mt. Sinai

    • National covenant
    • National law
    • National shrine / Tabernacle
    • National priesthood
    • National sacrifices
    • National festivals
    • National apostasy – golden calf
    • National census


  1. Numb. 10:11 – 12 : Journey two, From Mt. Sinai to Kadesh-Barnea

    • complaint about meat – God sent Quails
    • appointment of 70 elders
    • Miriam & Aaron oppose Moses


  1. Numb. 13 – 20:21: Encampment two - at Kadesh-Barnea & 38 years wandering

    • 12 spies
    • unbelief of the majority
    • God's judgment that they die in the wilderness
    • rebellion of Korah / Priesthood question
    • Moses excluded from the Promised Land
    • death of Miriam


5. Numb. 20:22 – 21 – Journey three, to the Plains of Moab


    • death of Aaron
    • defeat of Arad
    • Complaint / fiery serpents
    • victory over Amorites and the land of Bashan


  1. Numb. 22 – Deut 34: Encampment three, in the Plains of Moab

    • Balak & Balaam
    • second census
    • division & settlement of land east of Jordan
    • appt. of Joshua as Moses' successor
    • Moses' orientation of the new generation to the covenant, its laws and promises / circumcision
    • death of Moses






LEVITICUS



Date: 1445 – 1444 B.C.


Author: Moses


Setting: The foot of Mount Sinai


Audience: The Priests and Levites, Hebrews


Purpose & Background: Written as a guide for the Priests and Levites, outlining their duties in worship. Leviticus was also written as a guide for holy living for the Hebrews.


Main Characters: Moses, Aaron, Nadab, Abihu, Eleazar, Ithamar


Key events & passages: Giving of the laws and guidelines for worship


Themes: sacrificial offerings, worship, health, holiness, Levites


Places of interest: Mount Sinai


Typology of Christ: The Priests represent Christ as mediator and His holiness, the sin offerings foreshadow Jesus life as a sin offering, The Day of Atonement foreshadows Jesus' death and atonement for our sin, The laws and seasons represent God's Kingdom-government on earth.


The Five Offerings all typify the person and work of Christ in His sinless life, submission to the Father that we might have fellowship with God and they represent worship: the offerings were part of Hebrew worship and in New Covenant times, our offerings represent part of our worship e.g. we bring tithes and offerings to the Lord and we bring our life as an offering and sacrifice to Him (see Rom 12:1). The Seven Feasts also form a type of the Saviour.

(Diagram 3. below from Jewish offerings, Barnes Bible Charts)



OUTLINE of the Book of Leviticus:


  1. The Sacrifices/Offerings (chapters 1 – 7)

a. burnt offering 1 & 6 b. cereal offering 2 & 6

c. peace offering 3 & 4 d. sin offering 4, 5 & 6


  1. The Priests (chapters 8-10)

a. consecration and ministry 8-9 b. rules for priests 10

  1. Laws of uncleanness (chapters 11-15)

a. food b. childbirth

c. sin diseases d. discharges



  1. The Day of Atonement and the blood (chapters 16-17, 23)
  1. Laws and Seasons (chapters 23-27)

a. social laws 18-20:

b. priestly laws 21-122:

c. seasons 23-27

d. Sabbath, Passover, Unleavened Bread, Weeks (Pentecost), First Fruits, Trumpets 23

e. Day of Atonement 23

f. Tabernacles 23

g. Oil for lamps, bread of presence, case of blasphemy 24

h. seventh and jubilee years 25

I. Obedience 26 

j. Presentation of gifts 27



Questions for Group Studies, Leviticus:


(Note to teacher/class: Divide up the questions between the groups, allow time to for these activities and then get feedback from each group).


  1. Read the key events & passages and issues from Leviticus. Why are these passages important? What do they teach us? (Discuss)

2. Discuss the central theme of holiness: How can we be holy today? See 1 Pet 1:14-16, 1 Pet 2:9, Matt 5-7 and others. (Discuss and JOURNAL for homework)

3.  What can we learn from the Levitical Feasts? What were they celebrating (explain) and what they foreshadow in the New Testament?


4. Discuss & Compare: should we have a Priestly System under the New Covenant or should we worship and operate in a new way under the New Covenant? Compare to N.T. forms of worship found in Acts 2:42-47, Acts 4:32-35, 1 Corinthians 12 & 14 and other passages (Discuss & Journal).


5. Discuss Laws and traditions. Why where they made and why were they valid at this time? (see introduction). Are the Laws of the O.T. meant to be keep the today under the New Covenant today? Research N.T. see Matt 7:1-15, Galatians 3 & 5, Heb 10:1-23. 6. Discuss the difference between the Laws and the Commandments. Why were the Laws set in place?



6.   Discuss What can we learn about the nature of God in the book of Leviticus? Compare to the nature Jesus in the New Testament. Are they different or the same? How are they applied? (JOURNAL)


7.   Look in more depth into the Role of the High Priest and compare this to Jesus' and his ministry (read Leviticus chapter 16). How did Jesus fulfil the role of the High Priest? e.g. compare the High Priests' role on the Day of Atonement to Jesus' atonement on the cross and more (read Hebrews 7:11- 8:1-13, Heb 9, 1 Tim 2:5 ). Discuss and Journal.


Further study points in Leviticus/Homework (optional):

Choose one or more below:


1.  What did the Tabernacle represent to the Israelites? What is the significance to us now? Hebrews chapters 8-9. What does it mean to be the temple of the Holy Spirit today?


2.  Compare the Old Covenant of sacrifices with the New Covenant. Read Hebrews 9:11-27. What is the difference? When did the New Covenant come into place, e.g. when Jesus was born or after the Cross? What kind of heart attitude and sacrifice is God looking for from us? See Psalm 51:16 & 17 and Rom 12:1.  (Journal all your answers).





NUMBERS


Date: 1450-1410 B.C.


Author: Moses


Setting: The Sinai desert, and lands south and east of Canaan


Audience: The people of Israel


Purpose & Background: To tell the story of how Israel prepared to enter the Promised Land; how they sinned and were punished and how they prepared to try again.


Main Characters: Moses, Aaron, Miriam, Joshua, Caleb, Eleazar, Korah, Balaam


Key events & passages: Celebrating Passover, First & second census, daily manna, sickness & healings in the desert, The Cloud and Pillar of fire in the desert, first approach to the Promised land, Balaam and Balak, the Moabite King.


Themes: Census, rebellion, wanderings, Canaan


Places of interest: Mount Sinai, the Promised Land (Canaan), Mount Hor, Plains of Moab.


Typology of Christ:




      • The serpent lifted up on the standard (cf. Num. 21:4-9 with John 3:14) is a clear portrait of Christ and His crucifixion.
      • The rock that quenched the thirst of the people is a type of Christ (1 Cor. 10:4).
      • The daily manna pictures Christ as the bread come down from heaven (John 6:31-33).
      • The pillar of cloud and fire portray the guidance of Christ and the cities of refuge certainly portray Christ as our refuge from judgment.
      • Finally, the red heifer is also a type of Christ (ch. 19).



OUTLINE of the Book of Numbers:


  1. Preparing for the Journey, Chapters 1-10:10

a. The first census of the nation

b. The role of the Levites

c. The purity of the camp

d. Receiving guidance for the journey


  1. First approach to the Promised Land, Chapters 10:11 - 14:45

a. The people complain

b. Miriam and Aaron oppose Moses

c. The spies incite rebellion



  1. Wandering in the Desert, Chapters 15-21:35

a. Additional regulations

b. Many leaders rebel against Moses

c. Duties of priests and Levites

d. The new generation


  1. Second approach to the Promised Land, Chapters 22 – 36

a. The story of Balaam

b. The second census of the nation

c. Instructions concerning offerings

d. Vengeance on the Midianites

e. The Transjordan Tribes f. Camped on the plains of Moab

Diagram 4 below:



Questions for Group Studies, Numbers:


(Note to teacher/class: Divide up the questions between the groups, allow time to for these activities and then get feedback from each group).


  1. Why were the Israelites set into tribes and in what position around the Tabernacle? What were the names of the 12 Tribes of Israel and what was each tribes' role? Look further into tribe of the Levites and their role during this time (see Numbers 3).
  2. Discuss the theme and purpose of the book of Numbers and what we can learn from the mistakes that the Jewish nation made during this time? (JOURNAL)
  3. What is the significance of the Ark of the Covenant, The Cloud that covered the Tabernacle, the fire and the trumpets? (see Numb. 9:15- 10:36)
  4. Read and discuss chapters 13-14. What was taking place during this time, and what was the outcome? What can we learn and apply to our lives from these two chapters? (JOURNAL)
  5. Read key passages and discuss their significance and meaning for today.
  6. What are the ‘prophetic types’ e.g. the serpent being lifted up on a pole, and events that point to Christ in the book of Numbers? What do these mean to us today under the New Covenant, not just generally, but personally? Share your experiences.
  7. What was different about Caleb and Joshua compared to the other spies? (chapter 13,14).



Further study points, Numbers/Homework (optional):

  1. Find out the role of the Priests. Read Numbers 18:7 and following verses.
  2. Research the Covenant and the Ark of the Covenant. What significance does this have? What does the Ark represent and how?
  3. Read the story of Balaam (Numbers 22-24). What kind of character was Balaam? What kind of prophet was he? How do prophets go wrong? Can they be restored?




DEUTERONOMY


Date: 1407/6 B.C.


Author: Main author, Moses (summary by Joshua)


Setting: East side of the river Jordan, in view of Canaan


Audience: Israel (the new generation entering the Promised Land)


Purpose & Background: To remind people of what God had done and encourage them to rededicate their lives to God.


Main Characters: Moses, Joshua


Key events: First, second and third addresses to Israel; Covenants.


Themes: History, Covenant, Laws and commandments, curses & blessings, obedience, Joshua appointed as successor to Moses


Places of interest: The Arabah in Moab


Typology of Christ:

In Deut. 18:15 it says, “The Lord your God will raise up for you a prophet like me from among you, from your countrymen, you shall listen to him.” This is one of the clearest portraits of Christ: Moses, as a type of Christ, is the only figure other than Christ to fill all three of the offices of prophet (34:10-12), priest (Ex. 32:31-35), and king (although Moses was not king, he functioned as ruler of

Israel; 33:4-5).



OUTLINE of the book of Deuteronomy:


  1. Moses' first address: Prologue to Covenant


a. preface, 1 

b. Horeb to Kadesh, 1

c. Kadesh to Bethpeor, 2-3 d. Importance of obedience, 4

e. historical notes & cities of refuge, 4



  1. Moses' second address: Covenant expounded: Chapters 4-28

a. preface, 4

b. ten commandments, 5

c. comments, application and recollection, 5-11

d. additional rules & laws, 12-26

e. writing the commandments, 27

f. curses & blessings, 27-28

g. consequences of disobedience, 28



  1. Third address: Covenant recapitulated – Chapters 29-30

a. In the wilderness, land & captivity, 29

b. secret and revealed things, 29

c. In land, again, 30

d. final appeal, 30



  1. Closing events of Moses' life: covenant renewal – Chapters 31-34

a. his successor, 31 b. his song, 32

c. his blessing, 33 d. his death, 34



Questions for Group Studies (Deuteronomy):


(Note to teacher/class: Divide up the questions between the groups, allow time to for these activities and then get feedback from each group).


  1. Read through and discuss key event passages and say why are important. What can we learn from them?
  2. Read chapter 4:1-2 & verse 9. Meditate on what this means and discuss the verses.
  3. Read chapters 27-28 about curses and blessings. Why were these curses and blessings pronounced on Israel? Does the Lord send curses on us now (if we are sinful or disobedient) under the New Covenant? See Rom 5:12, 13, 18, Rom 6:23.
  4. Describe the life, characteristics and leadership skills of Moses. What can we learn from him?
  5. Moses mentored and trained Joshua to take over his role as a leader of the Israelites. How and when did he do this? What does this teach us about training and leadership skills? (See Deut. 31). Compare this to Jesus training his disciples and Paul mentoring and training Timothy and Titus, calling them 'his sons.' What then is the BEST way to train others?
  6. Pray: in Exd. 32:9-14, Moses interceded for the Hebrews regarding God's judgment on them for complaining and disobeying God and in Deut. 33 Moses prayed blessings on the Tribes. Do we intercede in this way? Do we pray prayers of blessings on our family, friends, church, community, nation and leaders? See Look up these scriptures and begin to pray regularly for them:

Ezk 22:30, 1 Tim 2:1-2, Rom 13:1, Jerm 29:7, 2 Chronicles 7:14, Prov. 2:1-8.

  1. In your groups, make a chart and fill it in, comparing the O.T and N.T. Covenant.





Further study points, Deuteronomy/Homework (optional):

Choose one or more below:


  1. Research further into curses and blessings. Can evil people, witches or our ancestors from previous generations pass down curses on us, and if so, how can they be broken? Can we have generational curses passed down to us today? (be careful to avoid harmful, religious beliefs or deliverance tactics).
  2. Study the life of Moses: his calling, his relationship with God, his works, his gifts and skills, the miracles, his character. (see Duet. 34:10)
  3. Thinking about Moses and Joshua, look carefully at your own characteristics and leadership skills and meditate on what could be improved and how.  (Journal your answers).



REFERENCES & BIBLIOGRAPHY


  1. Apatfalvi Janos, (Cover Picture), www.hungarianmastersgallery.com 2013
  2. Carol Brooks, 2012, Diagram : Seven Feasts of Israel, www.inplainsight.org
  3. Conforming to Jesus, Diagram 4: https://www.conformingtojesus.com/charts-maps/en/wilderness_camp_of_the_tribes_of_israel.htm
  4. Grigg R, 2017, Kingdom Ministries UK (Compilation of Old Testament Study, questions and charts for Group Study, throughout).
  5. Hampton Keathley J. III, 1998, Biblical Studies Press, www.bible.org. (Introductions, Typology, Charts, throughout).
  6. Kingsway Publishers, (N.I.V.) 2009, Life Application Bible, Study Guide

(Biblical Facts, history, maps & outlines of books of the Bible, throughout).

  1. Barnes Bible Charts, Diagram 3: Jewish Offerings, www.biblecharts.org/oldtestament/jewishofferings
  2. Life Application Study Bible, Map 1, Key Places in Genesis, Kingsway Publishers UK, 2009
  3. Life Application Study Bible, Map 2, Key Places in Exodus, Kingsway Publishers UK, 2009
  4. The Menorah, Spring Festivals and Fall Festivals, Diagram 6, (p37)

www.doubleportioninheritance.blogspot.co.uk 2013

  1. Moses Law and 10 Commandments, chart: http://www.preparingforeternity.com/mosevs10.htm 1999-2012
  2. Tabernacle of Moses, Diagram 1: (outside view), http://biblicalisraeltours.com/old-testament-tabernacle-model/
  3. Tabernacle of Moses, Picture 2: (inside view) https://biblethingsinbibleways.wordpress.com/2016/11/25/the-tabernacle-temple-synagogue-church-what-is-the-house-of-god/
  4. Tabernacle of Moses, Diagram 2a:(inside view of layout) www.tabernacleofmoses.org 2013
  5. Tribal Encampment, Diagram 4: www.israel-a-history-of.com 2013
  6. Tribes in marching order, Diagram 5:
  7. Turner W D, Chart: Jewish Feasts, Bible Track, 2004
  8. Welton, J, Dr. 2003, Understanding Covenants; Imagine Church, 2016, https://youtu.be/gQg-GrSZIcA